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A list of known negative effects or risks of modafinil was drawn from the pharmaceutical data sheet for modafinil [ 23 ]. A full list of the benefits and risks presented to the respondents, together with their free text data beyond the listed items, can be found in the S2 Table of the supplementary materials. Two further questions about modafinil were included to assess knowledge of recommended dosages, perceptions of continue reading use and dependency on modafinil.

A mixed-measures design was used to investigate the perceived effects of modafinil and its frequency of use. There was one between-group factor, the frequency of use of modafinil with five levels: every day, three or more times a week, once or twice a week, two or three times a month and six times or less a year. The two within-group factors were the timeframe over which the effects of modafinil were reported with two levels: immediate and longer-lasting and the perceived effects of modafinil with two levels: benefits and risks.

A between-groups design was used to investigate whether reported psychiatric diagnosis status, the dependent variable, had an influence on perceived effects of modafinil, the independent variable. Data relating to frequency of use of modafinil were analysed using SPSS software, version Five x 2 x 2 ANOVAs were used to explore the differences between the perceived positive and negative effects of modafinil and how these related to frequency of use.

The large number of cells with uneven cell sizes would otherwise have prevented a coherent analysis of categorical data. Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to determine significant differences in the number of effects reported for different frequencies of use. To facilitate the interpretation of a 2 x 5 interaction, post-hoc t-tests were used. Mann-Whiney U tests were performed to establish whether psychiatric diagnosis status had any impact on perceived effects of modafinil.

For this analysis, the total number of perceived risks was subtracted from the total number of perceived benefits. This created a risk-benefit trade-off value with positive scores indicating that the perceived benefits outweighed the perceived risks.

These scores were calculated to enable comparisons to be made between those with and without a reported psychiatric diagnosis. A link to the survey, along with an advertisement, was posted, with appropriate permission, to the selected forum sites.

The survey was conducted over a two-month period from August 12th to October 12th, Respondents were asked to confirm they were aged over 18 years and not under the influence of a psychoactive drug whilst completing the survey. Once the consent form had been clicked to indicate consent, the survey commenced. It ended with a debriefing text which required the selection of a submit button for the data to be logged and included in the analyses.

The respondents were asked to indicate how they obtained modafinil, selecting more than one option if applicable. The data analyses reported in this subsection are based on the total number of boxes ticked in the perceived risks and benefits section of the questionnaire. Respondents reporting that they took modafinil on a daily basis reported the greatest number of perceived effects benefits and risks across both timeframes immediate and longer lasting.

Means, as well as the minimum and maximum numbers of total effects, are shown in Table 1. Post-hoc within-subjects t-tests confirmed that the difference between immediate and longer lasting effects was significant for all Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum frequency of use groups see S3 Table of the supplementary material for further information.

The overall pattern of the results remained the same after log transformation. The results indicated that the effect size was smaller for both everyday use and six or fewer times a year than for all other frequency of use groups. The two-way interaction appears, therefore, to be due to a smaller difference between the reported immediate and longer-lasting effects in the most and least frequent use groups.

Fig 1 suggests that every day users reported a higher number of long-term effects risks and benefits combined and those that reported a frequency of use of six times Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum fewer reported fewer immediate effects both risks and benefits combined.

Post-hoc within-subjects t-tests confirmed that the difference between perceived benefits and risks was significant for all five frequency of use groups see S5 Table of the supplementary material for further information. The effect size was smallest for six or fewer times a year. Fig 2 shows that the reported frequency of use of modafinil of less than once a month yielded a smaller difference between its perceived risks and benefits. Individuals who reported a psychiatric diagnosis reported experiencing greater longer-lasting benefits of modafinil than those without a diagnosis see Table 2.

The results indicate that modafinil was perceived as having greater benefits than risks and a greater reported frequency of use was found to result in greater reported benefits. The majority of respondents reported themselves to be male, employed and university-educated. Provigil Fatigue, modafinil was seen as being a safe drug, even when taken three times a week or more.

Most respondents appeared to be aware of the recommended dose of mg. Although perceived dependency on modafinil was low, the link between frequency of use and perceived benefits suggest that there is a possibility that dependency may develop over time.

The data show that more frequent reported use of modafinil led to perceived benefits. It appears that the reported use of modafinil on at least a monthly basis resulted in a higher number of reported benefits whilst reported risks remain low.

A plausible explanation could be Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum more frequent reported use occurs as a consequence of greater perceived benefits since it seems unlikely that continued use would occur without experiencing the benefits of the drug. Chronic drug use is, however, known to lead to tolerance caused, in part, by a reduction in receptor numbers [ 50 ] but this may not always be the case with modafinil.

Nasr, Wendt and Steiner [ 51 ] reported that long-term use of modafinil in patients with affective disorders did not induce tolerance. Therefore it is plausible that continued, long-term use of modafinil could still provide these perceived benefits. The data also show that perceived benefits outweigh perceived risks. The respondents reported significantly more benefits than risks.

It is known that modafinil is well-tolerated and lacks the undesirable adverse effects of other stimulants [ 24 ]. It was, therefore, expected that the benefits would outweigh the risks based on the range of potential benefits that it offers, which include enhanced attention, comprehension and working Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum [ 32 ], as well as alertness, vigilance and enhanced executive functions [ 52 ].

Perceived benefits, however, did persist beyond immediate use of modafinil. Everyday use of modafinil resulted in higher reported longer-lasting effects. This finding may, however, be explained by the pharmacokinetic profile Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum modafinil.

As the half-life of modafinil is approximately 12—15 hours [ 2526 ], daily use of modafinil would result in a constant, and possibly increasing, plasma concentration of modafinil, which also suggests constant, higher levels of synaptic DA and NE in addition to other neurotransmitters that are modulated by modafinil.

Increased synaptic DA and NE have been associated with improved cognitive function [ 2853 ]. One-fifth of respondents reported having a psychiatric diagnosis and, of these, the most commonly reported diagnoses were depression, anxiety or both depression Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum anxiety.

However, it should be noted that the reported rates of psychiatric diagnosis among modafinil users do seem to be higher than the Prevalence and official recognition of psychiatric problems varies by country, gender and age group [ 5556 ], therefore making direct comparisons difficult.

It may be that modafinil use may have preceded the psychiatric diagnosis or it may be that modafinil may have been being used to combat the potential side-effects of prescribed medications. Individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis did not always perceive greater benefits of modafinil use compared with those without a psychiatric diagnosis. Respondents with a reported psychiatric diagnosis perceived significantly greater longer-lasting benefits but the perceived immediate benefits were Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum significantly greater.

This is somewhat surprising considering the potential mood enhancing effects of modafinil [ 43 ]. Deficiencies in DA, NE and serotonin are likely to underpin major depressive disorder [ 57 ]. As modafinil intake results in higher levels of DA, NE, and serotonin [ 29 ], it is possible although highly speculative that the benefits of these drugs for people with a psychiatric diagnosis may be due to poorer functioning of these neurotransmitter systems.

A range of cognitive impairments have been reliably associated with depression [ 58 ] and some anxiety disorders [ 59 ]. This raises the possibility that modafinil may be used to enhance poorer cognitive performance amongst this Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum. As would be expected from recruitment via online drug user forums, levels of reported illicit drug use in the sample were high. These findings are consistent with those of Ott and Biller-Andorno [ 62 ] who reported similar percentages of lifetime illicit drug use to those reported in the current study.

The Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum in the current study may indicate, as suggested earlier, that illicit drug users are more likely to take CEDs since they report being more open to taking drugs in general. Conversely, although the reported illicit drug use in the current study may reflect the drug source forum population from which the sample was drawn, it does suggest that those who take CEDs tend to use recreational drugs as well.

The present study has a number of limitations. Additionally, although the gender bias in the sample may Provigil Face Rash a higher propensity of risk-taking Provigil Farmaco by men [ 63 ], it may more simply be an artefact of the online forum recruitment methods as users of such forum sites appear typically to be male [ 64 — 66 ].

The questionnaire did not include questions on current use of psychiatric medications or other medications which could potentially interact, attenuate or increase the effects of modafinil and other medications. It is difficult, therefore, to assess the benefits of modafinil in those with a psychiatric diagnosis in the absence of this information.

Further research is needed to explore whether there is any evidence to indicate that people with a psychiatric diagnosis self-medicating via the off-prescription use of modafinil. As many respondents were recruited via drug forums, drug-use data from modafinil users are likely to reflect the behaviour of Provigil Canada population sample and may not reflect all modafinil users.

However, this population was targeted to gain a greater understanding of how these drugs were experienced and perceived by users themselves. The survey has thus provided important information on the profile of the off-prescription user of modafinil but the data are subject to the usual limitations of online surveys [ 6768 ], such as a reliance on self-report measures with no check being possible on the identity of the respondent. In addition, this was a self-selecting sample of people who use student, CED user, and drug user online forums.

Whilst these weaknesses must be acknowledged, the current study is comparable with the approach taken in other published studies [ 4568 ]. A further limitation is that the https://buymodafinilntx.com/4-is-provigil-cheaper-than-nuvigil-vyla.php did not include questions testing for attentional problems. This is potentially a concern as it is possible that there may read more an element of self-medication by individuals with low baseline levels of DA and NE.

Further research is thus warranted to investigate this possibility. Finally, the survey did not include questions on continue reading and alcohol use, use of other CEDs or routes of administration of modafinil.

The authors intend to address these issues in a further study, which will include these questions and will also investigate cognitive and attentional functions both with and without modafinil use.

This study has found that, as the reported frequency of modafinil use increased, the number of perceived benefits increased, whilst the number of negative effects remained stable and unchanged. Respondents also reported significantly more benefits than risks and more immediate benefits than longer-lasting benefits.

Conversely, those with a reported psychiatric diagnosis perceived greater longer-lasting benefits compared with those without a psychiatric diagnosis. This study has provided insight into the profile of modafinil users who are, in this English language study at least, mostly male, American or British, educated, employed and in their mids. There was a pattern of reported recreational drug use associated with modafinil use.

Whilst self-reported dependency was low in this sample, the link between perceived benefits and frequency of use suggests that there may be the potential for dependency to develop over time.

The Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum that people may be using modafinil as a supportive treatment for a psychiatric diagnosis warrants further explanation from a public health or clinical use perspective. This link may be suggestive of further beneficial effects of modafinil or, more simply, it may reflect insufficient medical treatment for psychiatric disorders in some people.

Whichever explanation turns out to be correct, it is clear from this paper that the reported perceptions of modafinil as a safe drug, with more frequent use giving greater benefits, suggests that off-prescription use may well increase in popularity and this may result in dependency in some people.

The authors would like to thank the forum administrators at Reddit, Bluelight and The Student Room who assisted in running this survey, and the participants for their valued contribution to the research. No other funding was received. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of this manuscript. This paper was transferred from another journal. As a result, its full editorial history including decision letters, peer reviews and author responses may not be present.

The off-prescription use of modafinil: An online survey of perceived risks and benefits. Therefore, we invite you to submit a revised version of the manuscript that addresses the points raised during the review process. The two reviewers addressed several major and minor concerns about your manuscript.

Please revise your manuscript carefully. We would appreciate receiving your revised manuscript by Oct 20 PM. If you would like to make changes to your financial disclosure, please include Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum updated statement in your cover letter.

To enhance the reproducibility of your results, we recommend that if applicable you deposit your laboratory protocols in protocols. A rebuttal letter that responds to each point raised by the academic editor and reviewer s. This letter should be uploaded as separate file and labeled 'Response to Reviewers'. A marked-up copy of your manuscript that highlights changes made to the original version. This file should be uploaded as separate file and labeled 'Revised Manuscript with Track Changes'.

An unmarked version of your revised paper without tracked changes. This file should be uploaded as separate file and labeled 'Manuscript'. Please note while forming your response, if your article is accepted, you may have the opportunity to make the peer review history publicly available. The record will include editor decision letters with reviews and your responses to reviewer comments.

If eligible, we will contact you to opt in or out. Please include additional information regarding the survey or questionnaire used in the study and ensure that you have provided sufficient details that others could replicate the analyses.

For instance, if you developed a questionnaire as part of this study and it is not under a copyright more restrictive than CC-BY, please include a copy, in both the original language and English, as Supporting Information.

The manuscript must describe a technically sound piece of scientific research with data that supports the conclusions. Experiments must have been conducted rigorously, with appropriate controls, replication, and sample sizes.

The conclusions must be drawn appropriately based on the data presented. Have the authors made all data underlying the findings in their manuscript fully available? The PLOS Data policy requires authors to make all data underlying the findings described in their manuscript fully available without restriction, with rare exception please refer to the Data Availability Statement in the manuscript PDF file.

The data should be provided as part of the manuscript or its supporting information, or deposited to a public repository.

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For example, in addition to summary statistics, the data points behind means, medians and variance measures should be available. If there are restrictions on publicly sharing data—e. Provogil the manuscript presented in an intelligible fashion and written in standard English? PLOS ONE does not copyedit accepted manuscripts, so the language in submitted Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum must be clear, correct, and unambiguous.

Any typographical or grammatical errors should be corrected at revision, so please note any specific errors here. Please use the space provided to explain your answers to the questions above. You may also include additional comments for the author, including concerns about dual publication, Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum ethics, or publication ethics. Please upload your Prlvigil as an attachment if it exceeds 20, characters.

The authors have presented interesting descriptive Forkm regarding the use of modafinil as a cognitive enhancing medication. The background information given in the introduction was well written and clear. The aims and hypotheses seem unclear throughout, mostly in the results section, where a series of results is given without much explanation in the introduction or methods about the purpose of these analyses. Apart from the descriptive statistics, the statistical analysis in this paper is unclear.

A thorough review of the statistics is required by the Prpvigil, making sure that appropriate statistical tests are used for different types of data. Armodafinil is the r-enantiomer of racemic modafinil and often the two are used interchangeably or quite similarly.

Can the authors comment on this? Was there a primary hypothesis? They could have been prescribed it and still be using it for cognitive enhancement. Additionally, why did people complete the survey if they were not modafinil users — could they have been past users? I would like to see some information about these people who were excluded as it may be of interest. I think it would be of more interest to separate the effects into the two as it may be different and of interest to readers to present it that way?

Can the authors justify their hypothesis here? The hypothesis described in the introduction does not match the presentation of the results here. This is ultimately categorical data which seems to have been initially represented like it is continuous, then a series of comparisons have been made and p values given, but no comparative statistic given.

Prrovigil statistical methods should be better described in the methods and should be clearly reported. Perhaps this information would be better placed in a table in the supplementary material Frum need be. Again this appears to be count data, and should not really be converted to mean values. Neither of the figures match hypotheses outlined in the introduction. The discussion of limitations should be saved until later Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum the discussion section.

Do we know how many people use the drug as a cognitive enhancer? Reviewer 2: This is an interesting study on the off-prescription use of modafinil. The data presented here would provide valuable information for considering the pros and cons of modafinil as a cognitive enhancing drug CED. The paper is well written in general, but a few modifications would help readers to understand the significance of the data more straightforwardly.

Please consider the Fourm points:. This section is a little bit too long and the specific topics of modafinil and CEDs in general are mixed together. For example, after the introduction on modafinil, concomitant use of CEDs general and illicit drugs appeared p. Then the story goes on to the effects of modafinil in laboratory settings. After that, problems about studies on CEDs in general appear again p.

I would like authors to emphasize more straightforwardly 1 why you focused on modafinil, and 2 why you employed an online survey. This would help readers to determine what kind of benefits and risks the users perceived. Does this mean the majority of users did not perceive any effects? Am I right? If so, please mention this briefly. Plus, the rationale Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum combining both positive and negative effects should be explained.

To organize this section better, please consider the following points:.

The off-prescription use of modafinil: An online survey of perceived risks and benefits

Plus, please consider referring to action on the histaminergic system. This seems important for night-time use of modafinil. In this manuscript, these are Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum in several paragraphs. I think it is better to create a new paragraph and compile these topics.

Plus, in my opinion, several important questions were missing, such as status of cigarette smoking, use of other CEDs, and perceived levels of academic achievement. Could you include these limitations? PLOS authors have the option to publish the peer review history of their article what does this mean? If published, this will include your full peer review and any attached files.

Do you want your identity to be public for this peer review? For information about this choice, including consent withdrawal, please see our Privacy Policy. Please log into your account, locate the manuscript record, and check for the action link "View Attachments".

If this link does not appear, there are no attachment files to be viewed. To use PACE, you must first register as a user. Registration is free. If you encounter any issues or have any questions when using PACE, please email us at gro.

Please note that Supporting Information files do not need this step. The reviewer 1 still have some major concerns about the analysis methods implemented in this study.

The off-prescription use of modafinil: An online survey of perceived risks and benefits - PMC

We would appreciate receiving your revised manuscript by Dec 16 PM. I believe that the descriptive statistics are of interest, but I still have some concerns about the analysis methods implemented in this study. My mind, however, stayed alert as the day went on. As I took the four-hour journey back home to Liverpool, I didn't feel a bit of the tiredness I usually would. But this was the last time I would experience any positivity about taking modafinil.

The following day, a train journey presented what I expected to be a perfect opportunity to get some work done with the aid of a smart pill. I was wrong.

I became distracted - more so than normal. While the drug made me focus, it was on the wrong things - such as playing video games on my smartphone. As the time passed, I began to develop a very bad headache, I lost my appetite and I needed to use the bathroom - constantly. While my brain wasn't working any faster, my bladder certainly was. That evening, I began to feel the effects of modafinil's "wakefulness promoting agent".

When I tried to get to sleep, I found myself unable to switch off until the early hours of the morning. I also found an itchy lump on the Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum of my leg - one on my arm appeared too the following day. My experiences seemed a far cry from those of others.

Jason Auld - an athlete and entrepreneur from Edinburgh - says he feels like he can achieve virtually anything on modafinil. Usually you don't think that's possible, but modafinil allows me to do it. Apart from the initial burst of energy and the increased focus I experienced first time around, however, I ended up feeling far from my best.

The third and final time I took modafinil it was also disappointing. With a day of film editing ahead of me, the headaches returned. I became more and more dehydrated and, once again, I wasn't hungry. The reasons for taking CEDs have been found to include the fear of academic failure, the need to meet high work demands, overcoming procrastination and boosting motivation [ 1112 ].

Beyond these reasons, some individuals may also be self-medicating to treat undiagnosed attention deficit problems that they are experiencing [ 612 ]. Although the perceived effects of CEDs in everyday settings have been investigated [ 13 — 15 ], the CEDs included in such surveys were either looked at more generally as prescription stimulants or the use of a range of different CEDs was surveyed.

Given that modafinil is recognised as the most commonly used CED off-prescription [ 16 — 18 ], the research reported in the current paper focused specifically on understanding the user profile and perceived effects of modafinil when taken for non-medicinal purposes.

Modafinil is a mild psychostimulant drug prescribed for narcolepsy [ 19 ], sleep apnoea, shift worker sleep disorder [ 2021 ] and ADHD [ 22 ]. The recommended dose for modafinil is mg taken once daily [ 23 ]. Modafinil has been found to be well-tolerated, with a low incidence of adverse effects and low potential for abuse [ 24 ]. It is well absorbed, reaching peak plasma concentration between two and four hours following oral administration, and has a half-life of approximately 12—15 hours [ 2526 ].

It is thought to act primarily through noradrenaline NE and dopamine DA transporter inhibition [ 2728 ].

It also acts on serotonin, histamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate [ 29 ]. Therefore modafinil, when taken at the end of the day or in the evening, may result in an extended period of wakefulness which some individuals may find advantageous, particularly when working towards a pressing deadline. The most common adverse effects of modafinil are headaches, nausea, nervousness, rhinitis, diarrhoea, anxiety and insomnia [ 27 ]. In rare cases high doses of modafinil may also induce psychosis [ 31 ].

Modafinil has been found to enhance some aspects of cognitive performance in the laboratory. Gilleen et al. They found that performance on a language learning task, which drew upon attentional, comprehension and working memory processes, was significantly greater in the modafinil group compared with controls. Whilst other studies e. Differences in baseline performance may also explain the results of Repantis et al.

They found a moderate positive effect for a single dose administration of modafinil on reaction time, divided, sustained and selective attention. However, Battleday and Brem [ 35 ] suggested that some of the cognitive tests employed may not have been sensitive enough to detect improvements in healthy, non-sleep deprived adults.

Repantis et al. It may be that people choose to take modafinil when perceived cognitive demands are high or when their performance may be lowered through some form of impairment such as low baseline levels i. However, the studies reviewed so far have demonstrated the effects of modafinil when measured under laboratory conditions rather than when it is used illicitly, off-prescription, in daily life. Laboratory-based research takes place in controlled environments, providing very useful behavioural, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic information about modafinil use.

Nevertheless, off-prescription use of modafinil occurs in uncontrolled environments, often concurrently with other drug use. Drug interactions, dosage levels, perceived effectiveness, motivation and frequency of use and the quality of drugs are all factors which are likely to reflect the real-life experience of modafinil use. Online surveys, therefore, provide important information regarding everyday experience with modafinil that cannot be obtained via laboratory-based research.

Gaining such information is important since, in recent years, health concerns have been raised regarding the off-prescription use of modafinil for cognitive enhancement [ 372 ]. Further to these concerns, it appears that modafinil is commonly used for academic study, at least in elite universities in the UK Higher Education sector.

For example, one in five students at Oxford University reported the use of modafinil [ 5 ] and one in ten students at Cambridge University reported the use of either modafinil, Adderall or Ritalin for the purposes of cognitive enhancement [ 38 ].

Despite these health concerns and reported prevalence rates, there is no published study focused on both the positive and the negative perceived effects of modafinil and how these may be related to patterns of use, use of other drugs and psychiatric diagnosis.

Therefore, the survey reported in the current paper sought to address this gap in the literature. These associations beg the question as to whether illicit drug users are more likely to take CEDs because they are more open to using drugs in general. Therefore, the current study also aimed to investigate concurrent illicit drug use by modafinil users. Modafinil has been found to have mood enhancing effects [ 4344 ] and has been identified as having therapeutic potential for depression and cocaine dependency [ 27 ].

The perceived effects of modafinil amongst drug users and people with a psychiatric diagnosis have not, however, been explicitly investigated outside of the laboratory. Thus, a further aim was to investigate the psychiatric status of modafinil users. Given that modafinil appears to be used most commonly by students [ 538 ], when underperformance is likely [ 18 ] or work demands are high [ 11 ], it appears that modafinil provides benefits at cognitively demanding times.

It seems to offer many potential benefits such as improved attention, speed of response and visuospatial ability [ 1836 ], yet it also has low incidence of adverse effects [ 28 ].

Bearing these points in mind, it was hypothesized that 1 more frequent use of modafinil would yield greater perceived benefits and 2 the perceived benefits would outweigh the perceived negative effects or risks. Additionally, as it appears that modafinil has the effect of ameliorating poor performance, it seemed very plausible to Provigil And Depakote сайт that the benefits provided by modafinil cease to be present once the drug has worn off.

Therefore, it was also hypothesized that 3 these reported benefits would not persist beyond the immediate use of modafinil.

Finally, bearing in mind the mood-enhancing effects of modafinil [ 4344 ], it was also hypothesised that 4 individuals with a self-declared psychiatric diagnosis would perceive greater benefits of modafinil use compared with those not reporting a psychiatric diagnosis. Consent was obtained via a consent form found at the start of the online questionnaire. Respondents were only able to proceed with the survey if they clicked on each statement of the consent form.

A convenience sample was recruited through online forums see S1 File in the supplementary materials for the advertisement. Members of many of these forums are recreational drug users and, in some cases, specifically CED users. They, therefore, tend to be well informed about the drugs in question. These forum members, thus, reflect specific populations of drug users. Although seven of the selected sub-Reddits were drug-related, a further four of the selected sub-Reddits were student forums see S2 File in the supplementary materials for the list of sub-Reddits.

Due to the anonymous nature of data collection, however, it was not possible to separate the data collected from these two population samples.

The respondents were recruited by posting an advertisement with a link to the survey on all of the forum sites. No reward was offered for their participation. A total of respondents completed the survey, of whom reported no use of modafinil and 68 reported prescribed i. As this study focused on individuals who reported using modafinil and reported choosing to do so specifically for the purposes of cognitive enhancement, the data from both of these types of respondents were removed prior to statistical analysis.

Excluding the data obtained from these respondents resulted in a final sample size of Of the sample, However, due to the way in which the question was constructed, it was not possible to determine whether any of the unemployed were students. The survey was constructed following an analysis of other recent drug and CED-user surveys [ 45 — 47 ] and the identification of outstanding questions from the literature regarding motivations Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum use and access to CEDs [ 2 ].

Qualtrics XM survey software was used to create the online survey see S3 File in the supplementary materials Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum the full questionnaire. After the presentation of an information sheet and consent form, the questionnaire was presented and ended with a debriefing. The individual sections of the questionnaire were as follows:.

In order to gain a greater insight into the profile of the modafinil user frequenting these forum sites, demographic information was collected. This section consisted of nine questions, covering age, gender, nationality, educational and employment details. Drug use questions required respondents to indicate, with a yes or no response, lifetime use, use in the last year and attendance at drug and alcohol treatment programmes e.

This section included 16 questions on frequency of use, dosage taken, how modafinil was obtained, concurrent use of other drugs, motivations for use, and perceived risks and benefits experienced after taking modafinil. Questions regarding modafinil were presented with the brand names Provigil and Modalert to ensure it was not confused with armodafinil which, although similar to modafinil, is a different drug and may have different effects.

Armodafinil is the R -isomer of racemic modafinil and has been shown to result in higher plasma concentrations of the drug late in the day and so may result in prolonged wakefulness [ 29 ]. The list was chosen rather than providing a free text response in order to avoid respondents misinterpreting the Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum of what was required by the question and to facilitate data entry and analysis. A list of known negative effects or risks of modafinil was drawn from the pharmaceutical data sheet for modafinil [ 23 ].

A full list of the benefits and risks presented to the respondents, together with their free text data beyond the listed items, can be found in the S2 Table of the supplementary materials. Two further questions about modafinil were included to assess knowledge of recommended dosages, perceptions of harmful use and dependency on modafinil. A mixed-measures design was used to investigate the perceived effects of modafinil and its frequency of use.

There was one between-group factor, the frequency of use of modafinil with five levels: every day, three or more times a week, once or twice a week, two or three times a month and six times or less a year.

The two within-group factors were the timeframe over which the effects of modafinil were reported with two levels: immediate and longer-lasting and the perceived effects of modafinil with two levels: benefits and risks.

A between-groups design was used to investigate whether reported psychiatric diagnosis status, the dependent variable, had an influence on perceived effects of modafinil, the independent variable. Data relating to frequency of use of modafinil were analysed using SPSS software, version Five x 2 x 2 ANOVAs were used to explore the differences between the perceived positive and negative effects of modafinil and how these related to frequency of use. The large number of cells with uneven cell sizes would otherwise have prevented a coherent analysis of categorical data.

Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to determine significant differences Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum the number of effects reported for different frequencies of use. To facilitate the interpretation of a 2 x 5 interaction, post-hoc t-tests were used. Mann-Whiney U tests were performed to establish whether psychiatric diagnosis status had any impact on perceived effects of modafinil.

Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum this analysis, the total number of perceived risks was subtracted from the total number of perceived benefits. This created Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum risk-benefit trade-off value with positive scores indicating that the perceived benefits outweighed the perceived risks.

These scores were calculated to enable comparisons to be made between those with and without a reported psychiatric diagnosis. A link to the survey, along with an advertisement, was posted, with appropriate permission, to the selected forum sites. The survey was conducted over a two-month period from August 12th to October 12th, Respondents were asked to confirm they were aged over 18 years and not under the influence of a psychoactive drug whilst completing the survey.

Once the consent form had been clicked to indicate consent, the survey commenced.

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It ended with a Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum text which required the selection of a submit button for the data to be logged and included in the analyses. UBy respondents were asked to indicate how they obtained modafinil, selecting more than one option if applicable. Buj data analyses reported in this subsection are based on the total number of boxes ticked in the perceived risks and benefits section of the questionnaire.

Respondents reporting that they took modafinil on a daily basis reported the greatest number of perceived effects benefits and risks across both timeframes Provigi, and longer lasting. Means, as well as the minimum and maximum numbers of total effects, are shown in Table 1. Post-hoc within-subjects t-tests confirmed that the difference between immediate and longer lasting effects was significant for all five frequency of use groups Proviigl S3 Table of the supplementary material for further information.

The overall pattern of the results remained the same after log transformation. The results indicated that the effect size was smaller for both everyday use and six or fewer times a year than for all other frequency of use groups. The two-way interaction appears, therefore, to be due to a smaller difference between the reported immediate and longer-lasting effects in the most and least frequent use groups.

Fig 1 suggests that every day users reported a higher number of long-term effects risks and benefits combined and those that reported a frequency of use of six times or fewer reported fewer Cah effects both risks and benefits combined. Post-hoc within-subjects t-tests confirmed that the difference between perceived benefits and risks was significant for all five frequency of use groups see S5 Table of the supplementary material for further information. The effect size was smallest for six or fewer times a year.

Fig 2 shows that the reported frequency of use of modafinil of less than once a month yielded a smaller difference between its perceived risks and benefits. Individuals who reported a psychiatric diagnosis reported experiencing greater longer-lasting benefits of modafinil than Procigil without a diagnosis see Table 2.

The results indicate that modafinil was perceived as having Proivgil benefits Fogum risks and a greater reported frequency of use was found to result in greater reported benefits.

The Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum of respondents reported themselves to be male, employed and university-educated.

of nuvigil vs provigil, duuZ9r, diazepam for sale belfast, [url=buymodafinilntx.com]get diazepam[/url], diazepam for sale forum. To this end, an online survey, targeting cognitive enhancing drug users and students, was advertised on forum sites. Information was obtained regarding.

Overall, modafinil was seen as being a safe drug, even when taken three times a week or more. Most respondents appeared to be aware of the recommended dose of mg. Although perceived Cn on modafinil was low, the link between frequency of use and perceived benefits suggest that there is a possibility that dependency may develop over time. The data show that more frequent reported use of modafinil led to perceived benefits. It appears that the reported use of modafinil on at least a monthly basis resulted in a higher number of reported benefits whilst reported risks remain low.

A plausible explanation Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum Progigil that more frequent reported use CCan as a consequence of greater perceived benefits since it seems unlikely that continued use would occur without experiencing the benefits of the drug.

Chronic drug use is, however, known to lead to tolerance caused, in part, by a reduction in receptor numbers [ 50 ] but this may not always be the case with modafinil. Where Can I Buy Provigil Forum, Wendt and Steiner [ 51 ] reported that long-term use of modafinil in patients with affective disorders did not induce tolerance.

Therefore it is plausible that continued, long-term use of modafinil could still provide these perceived benefits.

The data also show that perceived benefits outweigh perceived risks. The respondents reported significantly more benefits than risks. It is known that modafinil is well-tolerated and lacks the undesirable adverse effects of other stimulants [ 24 ].

It was, therefore, expected that the benefits would outweigh the risks based on the range of potential benefits that it offers, which include enhanced attention, comprehension and working memory [ 32 ], as well as alertness, vigilance and enhanced executive functions [ 52 ]. Perceived benefits, however, did persist beyond immediate use of modafinil.

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