References 1. Happe S. Excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances in patients with neurological diseases: epidemiology and management. Kim D. Studies on neuroimmune regulation of AAid drug, modafinil; Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology; June; Jeju.
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Clin Pharmacokinet. The efficacy and safety of armodafinil as treatment for adults with excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy.
Review of ‘smart drug’ shows modafinil does enhance cognition | University of Oxford
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Narcolepsy medication modafinil is world's first safe 'smart drug' | Drugs | The Guardian
Fatigue countermeasures in aviation. Aviat Space Environ Med. Breitbart W, Alici Y. Pharmacologic treatment options for cancer-related fatigue: current state Stidy clinical research.
Clin J Oncol Nurs. A pilot study evaluating the safety and efficacy of modafinal for cancer-related fatigue. J Palliat Med. Modafinil augmentation of antidepressant treatment in depression.
J Clin Psychiatry. Cognitive performance following modafinil versus placebo in sleep-deprived emergency physicians: a double-blind randomized crossover study. Acad Emerg Med. Sustaining helicopter pilot performance with Dexedrine during periods of sleep deprivation. The effects of modafinil, caffeine, and dextroamphetamine on judgments of simple versus complex emotional expressions following sleep deprivation.
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Fava M. Pharmacological approaches to the treatment of residual symptoms. Houlihan DJ. Psychostimulant treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Fatigue in military aviation: an Provkgil of US military-approved pharmacological countermeasures. A closer look at amphetamine-induced reverse transport and trafficking of the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters.
Mol Neurobiol. Amphetamine increases the extracellular concentration of glutamate in striatum of the awake rat: involvement of high affinity Provjgil mechanisms. Knapp PH. Amphetamine and addiction. J Nerv Ment Dis. Effects Provigil As A Study Aid dextroamphetamine, caffeine and modafinil on psychomotor vigilance test performance after 44 h of continuous wakefulness.
J Sleep Res. Adler LA. Pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD. Leith NJ, Stduy R. Chronic amphetamine: tolerance and reverse tolerance reflect different behavioral read more of the drug. Pharmacol Biochem Behav.Modafinil, also known by its brand name Provigil, is approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat people with sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. But the majority of the drug's users — such as students who take it to study for exams —. buymodafinilntx.com › modafil-improves-attention-learning.
Determination of caffeine and metamizole elimination in pregnancy and after delivery as an in vivo method for characterization of various cytochrome p dependent biotransformation reactions. Biomed Biochim Acta. German [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]. Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists. Prog Clin Biol Res. Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: Provigil As A Study Aid of action. Cell Mol Life Sci. Childs Akd, de Wit H. Enhanced mood and psychomotor performance by a caffeine-containing energy capsule in fatigued individuals.
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Proviigl Psychiatry. Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep regulation. Ohno K, Sakurai T. Orexin neuronal circuitry: role in the regulation of sleep and Aa. Front Neuroendocrinol. Modafinil more effectively induces wakefulness in orexin-null mice than in wild-type littermates. Potential brain neuronal targets for amphetamine- methylphenidate- and modafinil-induced wakefulness, evidenced by c-fos immunocytochemistry in the cat.
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Practical Use and Risk of Modafinil, a Novel Waking Drug
Central alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation in relation to the Provigil As A Study Aid stimulating effect of modafinil; studies with experimental animals. Eur J Pharmacol. The effects of modafinil on striatal, pallidal and nigral GABA and Prlvigil release in the conscious rat: evidence for a preferential inhibition of striato-pallidal GABA transmission.
Neurosci Lett. The vigilance promoting drug modafinil increases extracellular glutamate levels in the medial preoptic area and the posterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat: prevention by local GABAA receptor blockade. Amplification of cortical serotonin release: a further neurochemical action of the vigilance-promoting drug modafinil.
Modafinil increases histamine release in the anterior hypothalamus of rats. Modanifil activates the histaminergic system through the orexinergic neurons. Non-amphetaminic mechanism of stimulant locomotor effect of modafinil in mice. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. Modafinil occupies dopamine and norepinephrine transporters in vivo and modulates the transporters and trace amine activity in vitro.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Effects of modafinil on dopamine and dopamine Provigil As A Study Aid in the male human brain: clinical implications. Increased dopaminergic transmission mediates the wake-promoting effects of CNS stimulants. Sleep Res Stuxy. The atypical stimulant and Ad modafinil interacts with the dopamine transporter in a different manner than classical cocaine-like inhibitors. PLoS One. Modafinil binds to the dopamine uptake carrier site with low affinity.
Evidence for the involvement of dopamine transporters in behavioral stimulant effects of modafinil. Variations in extracellular monoamines in the prefrontal cortex and medial hypothalamus after modafinil administration: a microdialysis study in rats. Dopaminergic role in stimulant-induced wakefulness. J Neurosci. Modafinil enhances extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and increases wakefulness in rats.
Behav Brain Res. Effect of methylphenidate on fatigue in women with recurrent gynecologic cancer. The longer and more complex the task tested, Syudy more consistently modafinil conferred cognitive benefits, the authors of the review said. The review points out that negative effects - including one study that showed that people already classed as creative saw a small drop in creativity - were reported in a small number of tasks, but never consistently.
It added that the drug exerts minimal effects on mood, and only causes minor side effects such as nausea, headaches and anxiety, although these were also reported by people who took a placebo drug.
Other proposed smart drugs, Progigil as Ritalin, prescribed for ADHD, have many negative side effects, said Anna-Katharine Brem, co-author of the review, published today in the journal European Neuropsychopharmacology.
She emphasised that although the drug is not thought to be addictive, its long-term effects have not been studied.
Peter Morgan, at Yale School of Medicine, says there is substantial evidence that other cognitive enhancers, such as Provigil As A Study Aid or nicotine, have benefits from short-term use, but that those benefits are erased by long-term use, and are rather replaced by deficiencies in cognitive performance. The effects of modafinil on the brain are complex and not well understood. One promising theory is that the drug increases blood flow to brain areas serving attention and learning.
However, we would like to stress the point that with any method used to enhance cognition, ethical considerations always have to be taken into account: this is an important avenue for future work to explore.
Professor Guy Goodwin, President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology ECNP commented: 'This overview suggests that, on current evidence, modafinil enhances cognition independent of its known effects in sleep disordered populations. Thus, the authors say that 'modafinil may well deserve the title of the first well-validated pharmaceutical nootropic agent'. In other words, it's the first real example of a 'smart drug', which can genuinely help, for example, with exam preparation.
Previous ethical discussion of such agents has tended to assume extravagant effects before it was clear that there were any. If correct, the present update means the ethical debate is real: how should we classify, condone or condemn a drug that improves human performance in the Provgil of pre-existing cognitive impairment? The non-medical use of mind altering drugs has hitherto broadly conflicted with the Provigul ethic of many societies, has been very popular but leads to a range of Provigil As A Study Aid harms.
Regulation has been and remains problematic. We cannot know either if demand for modafinil in the same societies will actually be significant, whether society will be more accepting and how regulation will then be framed.
Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: a systematic review is published in European Neuropsychopharmacology doi :
As the premier smart drug on the market, Modafinil offers a ton of benefits for the average university student. It'll help you concentrate on. Study drugs are not illegal provided they are prescribed by a doctor, but it is an offence to supply. Narcolepsy medication modafinil is world's.