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Provigil And Cognitive Function

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Posted by Mojar on 2022-05-24

Some Coognitive suggest it may enhance performance on complex tasks in healthy individuals; however, no long-term studies have tested whether modafinil prevents cognitive decline or dementia.

Modafinil is generally considered safe for most people with minor Cognitife effects such as headache, nausea, dizziness, insomnia, and anxiety. Modafinil may improve cognitive performance on complex tasks in healthy individuals, link no studies have Functioh it for long-term brain health. Our search identified:. One systematic review examined 24 studies in healthy individuals to determine whether modafinil improved cognitive performance on simple and complex tasks [1].

Most studies suggest that modafinil does not improve simple cognitive functions such as attention, Functioh working memory, and cognitive flexibility, possibly because participants already had high baseline scores on these simple cognitive functions. Modafinil's effects on learning and memory are mixed, with some studies suggesting benefits and others suggesting no change.

Most studies suggest that modafinil does not affect creativity, although others suggest modafinil may impair Functiin. Modafinil may improve some aspects of executive function such as planning, decision-making, and fluid intelligence.

In contrast to the Functon results with simple tasks, modafinil was shown to improve performance on complex tasks based on five clinical studies included in the systematic review. It was reported to be beneficial in a learning task Cognitkve also relied on attention and executive function, a task that relied on short-term memory and cognitive flexibility, and a task using multiple memory domains and attention [1].

In a different study, chess Congitive took more time per move on modafinil compared AAnd placebo, and therefore improved performance, but lost a number of games due to taking too much time [2]. Dance, A. Smart drugs: a dose of intelligence. NatureS2—S3. Self-referential reflective activity and its relationship with rest: a PET study. Neuroimage 25, — Dawson, N. Modafinil reverses phencyclidine-induced deficits in cognitive flexibility, cerebral Provigil And Cognitive Function, and functional brain connectivity.

Dodds, C. Dissociating inhibition, attention, and see more control Anf the frontoparietal network using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortex 21, — Brain Mapp. Esposito, R. Acute effects of modafinil on brain resting state networks in young healthy subjects.

Folstein, M. Fond, G. Innovative mechanisms of action for pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement: a systematic Provigll. Psychiatry Res.

Friston, K. Functional connectivity: the principal-component analysis of large PET data sets. Blood Flow Metab. Gazzaley, A. Top-down enhancement and suppression of Functkon magnitude and speed of neural activity. Gerrard, P. Mechanisms of modafinil: a review of current research. Gili, T. Right sensory-motor functional networks subserve action observation therapy in aphasia. Brain Imaging Behav. The thalamus and brainstem act as key hubs in alterations of Cgonitive brain network connectivity induced by mild propofol sedation.

Goelman, G. Maximizing negative correlations in resting-state functional connectivity MRI by time-lag. Goss, A. Modafinil augmentation therapy in unipolar and bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychiatry 74, — Guo, C. Brain— Hayasaka, S.

Comparison https://buymodafinilntx.com/9-quitting-provigil-cold-turkey-rebi.php characteristics between region-and voxel-based network analyses in resting-state fMRI data.

Neuroimage Prvoigil, — He, B. Spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity negatively interact. Hopfinger, J. The neural mechanisms of Provigip attentional control. Kraft, G. Modafinil for fatigue in MS: a Cognituve placebo-controlled double-blind study.

Neurology 65, — Luis, E. Successful working memory processes and cerebellum in an elderly sample: a neuropsychological and fMRI study.

Malcolm, R. Clinical applications of modafinil in stimulant Provigiil low abuse potential. Minzenberg, M. Modafinil: a review of neurochemical Provigio and effects on cognition. Neuropsychopharmacology 33, — Morgan, R. Modafinil improves attention, inhibitory control, and reaction time in healthy, middle-aged rats. Newman, M. Analysis of weighted networks.

E Stat. Soft Matter Phys. Nichols, T. Nonparametric permutation tests for functional neuroimaging: a primer with examples. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Nicosia, V. Controlling centrality in complex networks. Power, J. Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion. Neuroimage 59, Provigil And Cognitive Function Qu, W.

Dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors are essential for the arousal effect of Provigil And Cognitive Function. Rao, Y. Robertson, P. Clinical pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil. Rubinov, M. Complex network measures of brain connectivity: uses and interpretations. Neuroimage 52, — Salmi, J. Cognitive and motor loops of the human cerebro-cerebellar system. Shuman, T. Modafinil and memory: effects of modafinil on morris water maze learning and Pavlovian fear conditioning. Smith, Https://buymodafinilntx.com/7-is-provigil-prescribed-for-depression-woka.php. Threshold-free cluster enhancement: addressing problems of smoothing, threshold dependence and localisation in cluster inference.

Neuroimage 44, 83— Stoodley, C. Functional topography in the human cerebellum: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Neuroimage 44, — Tsanov, M. The psychostimulant modafinil facilitates water maze performance and augments synaptic potentiation in dentate gyrus.

Neuropharmacology 59, 9— Brain areas and related neurotransmitter systems that are potentially involved in mediating the actions of MOD related to its potential therapeutic effects on psychostimulant and Cognitibe abuse.

Brady et al. For example, the subjective effects of MOD have been studied in human cocaine-using volunteers, trained to recognize the cocaine discriminative Functiion mg, orally Provigil And Cognitive Function placebo Rush et al. The results showed that MOD did not share subjective effects with cocaine in the therapeutic dose-range of — mg, orallywhile in the same study methylphenidate 60 mg fully generalized to the cocaine cue.

Similar results were obtained by other researchers when comparing subjective and physiological effects of MOD with amphetamine Warot et al. These results point toward a unique mechanism of action for MOD as compared to other psychostimulants, even though all of these drugs interact in humans with the DAT Spencer et al.

A progressive-ratio procedure for earning MOD capsules was studied under two different conditions a relaxation and a performance condition.

In this study, MOD elicited dose-related reinforcing effects, measured as increases in break point, under performance, but not relaxation conditions. In both subject groups, however, MOD elicited similar stimulant-like, subject-rated effects. Thus, based on the results of this report, the authors conclude that MOD might have abuse potential under specific circumstances and especially in healthy subjects Stoops et Obama Provigil. A prosperous black market for MOD and other stimulants used as cognitive enhancers Cakic ; Chatterjee ;facilitated by their availability online Randall et al.

To date there are no reports describing MOD-induced intoxication, dependence or withdrawal Myrick et al. This could be a result of its physico-chemical properties, i. Indeed, the chemical structure of MOD Fig.

Several clinical trials using Provigil And Cognitive Function for both methamphetamine Funchion cocaine users have been reported Brady et al. For example, a clinical report on non-treatment seeking, cocaine-using volunteers showed how MOD, administered for 5 consecutive days, or mg orally significantly reduced the effects of randomized blinded infusion of cocaine 20 or 40 mg IV Malcolm et al.

Also, though without statistical significance, the authors suggested a positive trend in some of Provigil And Cognitive Function measures taken, including higher odds of attaining abstinence from cocaine.

Several clinical studies have also explored the potential effects of Provigik on different stages of methamphetamine dependence. While all Cgnitive these studies found MOD oCgnitive be safe and well tolerated in methamphetamine dependent subjects, none of them found Fhnction significant improvements in Provitil detection of metabolites, abstinence, depressive symptoms, or craving Anderson et al.

Other reports were performed without a placebo control, or with a limited number of subjects. Most if not all of these reports show interesting trends of MOD toward a significant effect on reduction in methamphetamine use or methamphetamine effects. In addition, Anderson and colleagues recently reported that ad Provigil And Cognitive Function analysis of medication compliance wherein a significant improvement in maximum duration of abstinence in those subjects who were in the top quartile for compliance was demonstrated.

This study not only provides positive results but underlines clinical trial challenges that must be addressed in the future with better biomarkers for medication compliance. A recent preclinical report shows how MOD treatment associated with behavioral training to extinction, blocked the reinstatement of extinguished opiate-seeking behavior in rats Tahsili-Fahadan et al.

This effect of MOD is specific for reinstatement of opiate-seeking behavior in animals trained to extinction, since it Cognitivve not affect the expression of morphine preference and the reinstatement of opiate-seeking behavior in animals not trained to extinction Tahsili-Fahadan et al.

Based on reports describing the concurrence of cognitive dysfunction in the addicted population, several clinical procedures and preclinical animal models have been developed to study cognition and especially neurocognitive deficits produced by acute and chronic administration of abused substances Beveridge et al.

Impulsivity and sensation-seeking traits, and a kind of pathological learning are also very well targeted as important factors during this transition to addiction Di Chiara et al. Thus, it is not surprising that drug addicted individuals display neurobiological impairments in those brain circuits required for normal decision-making and cognitive function Garavan and Hester As indicated by Gould the brain regions and the neural processes related to cognitive functions including learning, memory, and reasoning overlap extensively with those that are involved in mediating drug abuse and addiction processes Gould see Figs.

For example, it has been shown that continued drug use, i. Thus, alteration of cognitive functions can be found as a result of long-lasting changes produced by exposure to drugs of abuse in early stages of life Gould ; Porter et al. For example, repeated drug use may elicit disruption of frontal cortex processes known to regulate and control cognitive activities such as decision-making, response inhibition, planning and memory, as indicated by brain-imaging studies in humans and neuro-behavioral studies in experimental animals Gould ; Jupp and Dalley Therefore, the emerging Porvigil on cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction Brady et al.

It has been repeatedly shown in both clinical and preclinical studies that MOD may serve as a useful adjunct to behavioral therapies in the treatment of drug dependencies. Deficits in cognition and prefrontal cortical functions Provigil And Cognitive Function also been described in methamphetamine- MA dependent individuals Monterosso et al.

In a recent Provigil And Cognitive Function on a limited number of MA-dependent, non-treatment seeking subjects, a three-day mg MOD Provigil And Cognitive Function significantly improved working memory in those individuals showing poor performance at baseline, but not in those with relatively higher performance at baseline Kalechstein et al.

The same research group more recently Kalechstein et al. MOD improved learning by enhancing neural functions in brain regions related to learning and cognitive control, suggesting that MOD may be a suitable pharmacological adjunct for enhancing the efficacy of cognitive-based therapies for psychostimulant-dependence Ghahremani et al.

Therefore, medications that improve cognition in these subjects may also improve the success of therapy for their addiction. It should be noted that in the cigarette smoking population, where cognitive deficits have been consistently found in young and older smokers Chamberlain et al.

In a randomized placebo-controlled trial for smoking cessation in treatment-seeking tobacco smokers, MOD administered at a dose of mg daily for 8 weeks did not increase abstinence from smoking more than placebo Schnoll et al. Moreover, MOD worsened withdrawal conditions and affect, suggesting it might not be a drug of choice in smoker population with comorbid psychiatric disorders.

Modafinil Is an Effective Cognitive Enhancement Nootropic

It is interesting that MOD lacks any positive effects in this population, where the cognitive deficits might appear as a result of long term exposure to nicotine, an agonist at Ach-nicotinic receptors Chamberlain et al. It is then plausible that neural adaptations of Ach-nicotinic receptors render Provigil And Cognitive Function patient population less likely to respond to treatment with MOD, even though no direct link between Ach receptors and MOD has been reported see section 2.

In this regard, the suggestions of therapeutic applications for MOD coming from the well-known link between patients with mental illnesses schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression impairing cognition functions and their high risk for substance abuse see for example: Fenton et al.

Certainly an additional adverse impact on cognition, due to chronic substance abuse would be particularly deleterious in combination with pre-existing cognitive problems characteristic of such mental disorders Gould We have discussed the importance of the physico-chemical characteristics of MOD that might reduce its propensity for abuse Jasinski and Kovacevic-Ristanovic There might be, however, other important pharmacological targets that play a significant role in this apparent lack of abuse liability.

We have also discussed their involvement in the cognitive effects of MOD. A precise role for increased histamine neurotransmission in drug abuse and in the reinforcing effects of MOD is not clear. There are known effects of specific histamine receptors and their antagonist ligands, especially for the H3 receptor, in modulating the reinforcing and behavioral actions of psychostimulants Campbell et al. Also, like MOD there have been suggestions that amphetamines too might increase brain histamine transmission Munzar et al.

For example, orexin antagonists have been shown to negatively modulate the reinforcing efficacy and behavioral effects of several drugs of abuse, suggesting that orexin transmission plays a facilitating role in reward-related behaviors, including reinstatement of drug intake in abstinent animals Mahler et al. MOD has been suggested to increase orexin release through an unknown mechanism see the already discussed papers by Ishizuka et al. Interestingly, this effect is suppressed by pharmacologic blockade of the melanin concentrating hormone MCH or is not present in genetically modified mice lacking the MCH-1 receptors Rao et al.

Even more interesting is the evidence that suggests the MCH system is involved in cocaine abuse and in natural and drug reinforcement Chung et al. Thus, while it is not clear how an increase in orexin neurotransmission might be responsible, at least partially, for the reduced abuse liability of MOD, it is possible that complex interactions among several pharmacological targets have a role in this effect.

For instance, when taken https://buymodafinilntx.com/9-provigil-for-cancer-patients-zybe.php, the histaminergic and orexinergic properties of MOD might play a primary role in its Provigil And Cognitive Function therapeutic effects in specific populations of drug abusers, where cognitive dysfunction is evident.

Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or .serp-item__passage{color:#} Researchers have found that modafinil boosts higher-order cognitive function without causing serious side effects. Modafinil, which has been primarily prescribed in the U.S. since Provigil is sometimes prescribed for off-label purposes in the treatment of ADHD, certain mood disorders, and as a cognitive enhancer or  Another review found that Modafinil was seen to mainly affect cognition by improving executive function (decision-making, problem-solving, mental control, self-regulation) especially when.

Also, this might be true for treating those brain disorders that benefit from associating psychostimulant and cognitive therapies, for example ADHD or specific substance use disorders Brady et al.

Alteration of normal DAT function is related to a number of neurological disorders that are commonly treated with psychostimulant drugs. For example, the most commonly used medications in the treatment of ADHD in children and adults are methylphenidate and amphetamine, both of which function primarily through the DAT to express their therapeutic actions. The question is, can the psychostimulant actions of MOD efficaciously substitute for the therapeutic effects of amphetamine or methylphenidate in ADHD patients?

Results from this report show improvement for both MOD and amphetamine vs. The authors conclude that these results support MOD as a reasonable alternative to the more addictive psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD. An visit web page of the concept that MOD might also be useful in the treatment of other disorders typically treated with methylphenidate or amphetamine comes from its military use.

It is well known that veterans from war operations are at high risk for post-traumatic stress-disorders and for developing other mental illnesses see for example: Seal et al. Moreover, compared to active duty forces, veterans might also be at higher risk for alcohol and substance use disorders. We are not aware of the potential role that psychostimulants used during combat operations might have on this specific population.

However, since MOD has not been shown to be abused or to elicit withdrawal signs after its repeated use Martinez-Raga et al. This is especially true since one of the important features of MOD is to promote wakefulness without preventing sleep, if this opportunity is available Batejat and Lagarde Thus, a random combination of periods of sleep-deprivation, for example, during Provigil And Cognitive Function operations, and an opportunity for periodic naps would make MOD the drug of choice.

During the last 10—15 years MOD has been tested as an alternative to d-amphetamine by aircrews of the United States military services during helicopter flight operations Estrada et al. In the same study MOD elicited some side effects, dizziness, nausea, and vertigo that, as also suggested by Buguet and colleagues were likely the result of a too high dose of MOD. Indeed, when compared to the effects of d-amphetamine in sustained military flight operations Estrada et al.

In the same report MOD performed very well as a d-amphetamine alternative counteracting the sleep deprivation effects 40 hours without sleep on mood and cognition Estrada et al.

In this report subjects receiving MOD treatment did not maintain a better state of alertness and performance compared to subjects treated with placebo. While this dosage has been suggested by Buguet and colleagues as a safe and efficacious, Whitmore and colleagues concluded that the complete sleep loss could not be counteracted by the low dose of Provigil And Cognitive Function employed Whitmore et al.

Based on these reports, MOD appears to be a superior medication for improving performance upon sleep deprivation as compared to methylphenidate or amphetamine that are more likely to be abused by the general population.

This is even more important in certain populations such as young adults that may be more vulnerable to develop substance use disorders, or military personnel that might show a higher likelihood to develop post-traumatic stress disorders, and comorbid alcohol or drug abuse Seal et al. MOD appears to have multiple effects on different brain areas and neurotransmitter systems in the brain.

MOD activates different circuits and brain areas as compared to amphetamine and methylphenidate, while sharing inhibition of dopamine reuptake as a common mechanism underlying its pharmacological effects. Indeed, intriguing preliminary findings suggest that MOD may activate cortical over subcortical areas in the brain and might produce cognitive improvement in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders with relatively low, if any, abuse liability.

Recent research identified several non-dopaminergic effects of MOD, such as the increase of electrical neuronal coupling, or the enhancement of histamine and orexin neurotransmission that might be of primary importance to explain its efficacy as a wake-promoting and cognitive enhancing medication, even in non-sleep deprived individuals.

Moreover, its ability to selectively activate specific brain areas, like the extended amygdala and the lateral hypothalamus would likely contribute to its unique pharmacological profile and to its efficacy as a psychostimulant medication. Indeed, the reviewed clinical literature has shown that MOD may hold promise as a medication to treat psychostimulant-induced cognitive dysfunctions and also as an adjunct to behavioral therapies for psychostimulant abuse.

Additional clinical studies need to be designed to better understand how and to what extent MOD improves cognitive performance. Psychopharmacology Berl. Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding Author: Dr. Gianluigi Tanda, vog. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Psychopharmacology Berl. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Number and information on subjects Experimental information, measures taken MOD Treatment, Dosage, route, length of study Main effect of the treatment Secondary effect of the treatment reference 6 cocaine-using volunteers Discrimination of subjective effects of cocaine mg PO — mg PO No significant cocaine-like subjective effect but MOD fully substituted for cocaine in 3 subjects Rush et al.

There were gender differences; male subjects receiving mg were more abstinent than women Dackis et al. Confirmed previous evidence of cognitive deficits in active and abstinent MA users Hester et al. Lee et al. Self-reported use of MA was improved, even though there was no change in amphetamine positive urine analysis.

McGaugh et al. MOD showed better outcomes in subjects with only MA dependency than polysubstance users Shearer et al. No significant changes were elicited by escitalopram alone or in combination Provigil And Cognitive Function et al.

Smoking rate and withdrawal symptoms were higher at the end of the study in the MOD compared to placebo group. Schnoll Acknowledgments Funding.

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The Efficacy of Modafinil as a Cognitive Enhancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Modafinil--medical considerations for use in sustained operations. Smart drugs for cognitive enhancement: ethical and pragmatic considerations in the era of cosmetic neurology. J Med Ethics.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the efficacy of modafinil for sustaining the alertness and performance of aviators: a helicopter simulator study. Psychopharmacology Berl ; — Assessment of the influence of histaminergic actions on cocaine-like effects of 3alpha-diphenylmethoxytropane analogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Serotonergic modulation of cholinergic function in the central nervous system: cognitive implications. Am J Addict.

Cosmetic neurology: the controversy over enhancing movement, mentation, and mood. Cosmetic neurology and cosmetic surgery: parallels, predictions, and challenges. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. Functions of frontostriatal systems in cognition: comparative neuropsychopharmacological studies in rats, monkeys and humans. Biol Psychol. The melanin-concentrating hormone system modulates cocaine reward. The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology. Oxford University Press; Oxford: a. Oxford University Press; Oxford: b.

Norepinephrine and Epinephrine; pp. The glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis for schizophrenia. Harv Rev Psychiatry. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for cocaine dependence.

For example, MOD-induced improvement of cognitive performance has been explored in. Background: Animal models and human studies have identified the potential of modafinil as a cognitive enhancing agent, independent of its effects on promoting.

J Subst Abuse Treat. Prefrontal executive and cognitive functions in rodents: neural Provigil Farmaco neurochemical substrates.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Evaluation of modafinil effects on cardiovascular, subjective, Provigip reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers. Variations in extracellular monoamines in the prefrontal cortex and medial hypothalamus after modafinil administration: a microdialysis study in rats.

Acute modafinil effects on attention and inhibitory control in methamphetamine-dependent humans. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. Study of the addictive potential of Funcyion in naive and cocaine-experienced rats. Drugs of abuse: biochemical surrogates of specific aspects of natural reward? Biochem Soc Symp. Drug addiction as a disorder of associative learning. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Homologies and differences in the action of drugs of abuse and a conventional reinforcer food on dopamine transmission: an interpretative framework of the mechanism of drug dependence.

Provigil And Cognitive Function Pharmacol. Modafinil evokes striatal [ 3 H]dopamine release and alters the subjective properties of stimulants. Provigik J Pharmacol. A comprehensive assessment of neurocognition in middle-aged chronic cigarette smokers.

Central alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation in relation to the behaviour stimulating effect of modafinil; studies with experimental animals. Histamine H3 receptors. The complex interaction with dopamine and its implications for addiction. Brain regional substrates for the actions of the Funtion wake-promoting agent modafinil in the rat: comparison with amphetamine.

Differential Cognutive of regional Provigil And Cognitive Function induction in the rat brain by amphetamine and the novel wakefulness-promoting agent modafinil. Drug addiction endophenotypes: impulsive versus sensation-seeking personality traits.

Recent behavioral studies have indicated that modafinil can enhance cognitive performances in domains like attention, memory, executive. In addition, modafinil (at well-tolerated doses) improves function in several cognitive domains, including working memory and episodic.

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